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Maximizing utility means achieving the highest level of satisfactions over dissatisfactions which means that a person must consider the benefits and costs of her actions to everyone in society. United Kingdom, Introduction: The Contemporary Significance of Human Rights, Historical Origins and Development of the Theory and Practice of Human Rights, Philosophical Analysis of the Concept of Human Rights, Philosophical Justifications of Human Rights. He identifies seven fundamental interests, or what he terms ‘basic forms of human good’, as providing the basis for human rights. We encounter assertions of rights as we encounter sounds: persistentlyand in great variety. The basis for this duty is not mere benevolence or altruism, but individual self-interest. ... 4 - Theories of Human Rights. On this view, moral beliefs and concepts are capable of being objectively validated as fundamentally and universally true. The rights theory of ethics says that people make decisions based on the rights that their society agrees to. The moral doctrine of human rights aims at identifying the fundamental prerequisites for each human being leading a minimally good life. Centuries, the effects of which were to extend across the globe and over ensuing centuries. An ethical theory that was not found in the text is that of rationalism, which this ethical theory focuses mainly on norms. The universality of human rights positively entails such claims. Locke proceeded to argue that the principal purpose of the investiture of political authority in a sovereign state was the provision and protection of individuals’ basic natural rights. John Locke (1632 - 1704) Based off the principles and beliefs of John Locke, a 17 th century English philosopher, Locke’s Rights Ethics is one of the four major ethical theories that has shaped today’s society. The philosophical ideas defended by the likes of Locke and Kant have come to be associated with the general Enlightenment project initiated during the 17th. Is the relativist genuinely asking us to recognize and respect the integrity of Nazi Germany, or any other similarly repressive regime? Pr… Human rights are rights we give to ourselves, so to speak, as autonomous and formally equal beings. Liberty rights provide for the capacity to be free, without actually providing the specific means by which one may pursue the objects of one’s will. We will begin by clarifying the major ethical, economic, and political arguments and forces that shape discussions about health care in the US. However, certain immediate responses to the relativist critique of human rights are immediately available. These rights can be natural or conventional. In particular, individualism and materialism are at the present celebrated within major social institutions and have become a dominate ethos of the “baby bust generation.” Self-indulgence, greed, self-interest, and privatism are accepted components of the ethos of this generation (Frederickson, 1982). A liberty right can be said, then, to be a right to do as one pleases precisely because one is not under an obligation, grounded in others’ claim rights, to refrain from so acting. Gewirth grounds his argument in the claim that all human action is rationally purposive. These include a view of morality and justice as emanating from some pre-social domain, the identification of which provides the basis for distinguishing between ‘true’ and merely ‘conventional’ moral principles and beliefs. Greater Shareholder Role in Corporations: As shareholders are the vital stakeholders in a corporation in a capitalist economy, several corporate critics argue that businesses should be more attuned to shareholders’ ethical values and that shareholder control of the board of directors and executives should be increased. Natural rights were thereby presented as ultimately valid irrespective of whether they had achieved the recognition of any given political ruler or assembly. Appeals to national sovereignty should not provide a legitimate means for nation-states to permanently opt out of their fundamental human rights-based commitments. Within the past few years we have watched the beginning of the development of a new world order that will be substantially different from our sense of world order developed over the last half century. Interestingly, though unambiguously sceptical about the philosophical basis of human rights, Rorty views the existence of human rights as a ‘good and desirable thing’, something whose existence we all benefit from. One might seek to include freedom as a basic human interest, but freedom is not constitutive of our interests on this account. This basic idea was similarly expressed by the Roman Stoics, such as Cicero and Seneca, who argued that morality originated in the rational will of God and the existence of a cosmic city from which one could discern a natural, moral law whose authority transcended all local legal codes. These rights largely originate within the UDHR. Equally, her right against her mobile phone being stolen from her would be highly limited if it did not apply to all those capable of potentially performing such an act. For example, combining the appeal to fundamental interests with the aspiration of securing the conditions for each individual leading a minimally good life would be complicated by social and cultural diversity. This was, after all, a fundamental goal of the opponents of apartheid. Advocates of natural rights, he argues, were far more inclined to view equality in formalistic terms, as principally requiring the state to refrain from ‘interfering’ in individuals’ lives. Rorty aside, the general critique of moral objectivity has a long and very well-established heritage in modern moral philosophy. Human rights have a long historical heritage. Kant terms this the categorical imperative, which he formulates in the following terms, ‘act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.’ (1948:84). The belief in the existence of a universal moral community was maintained in Europe by Christianity over the ensuing centuries. Ronald Dworkin has coined the term ‘rights as trumps’ to describe this property. Profit maximization optimizes total social utility by narrowing the actor’s focus, requiring the decision maker to make a decision that merely maximizes profits for himself or his organization. According to Finnis, these are the essential prerequisites for human well-being and, as such, serve to justify our claims to the corresponding rights, whether they be of the claim right or liberty right variety. Section two proceeds to chart the historical development of the concept of human rights, beginning with a discussion of the earliest philosophical origins of the philosophical bases of human rights and culminating in some of most recent developments in the codification of human rights. Ye… Thus, strictly applying the will theorists’ criteria for membership of the community of human rights bearers would appear to result in the exclusion of some categories of human beings who are presently recognized as legitimate bearers of human rights. In distinguishing between ‘natural justice’ and ‘legal justice’, Aristotle writes, ‘the natural is that which has the same validity everywhere and does not depend upon acceptance.’ (Nicomachean Ethics, 189) Thus, the criteria for determining a truly rational system of justice pre-exist social and historical conventions. They include the increasing influence of cultural values substantially different from those of our Anglo-Saxon heritage; impacts of a complex global economy on local economic structures; and our rapidly increasing technological capacity to communicate and interact with the global community. The most important strength of rights theory is that it protects fundamental rights, unless some greater right takes precedence. 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